researchblogging 2 New Brainwave Products, Can You Spot The Fraud?This week two new brain computer interface (BCI) based products have hit the headlines, one is a hoax. I’ve placed the adverts for both below, see if you can figure out which one is a real project.

 

Project Black Mirror
The developers of “project black mirror” claim to have developed a BCI that can control an  iphone using Siri.

Neurowear
The developers of “Neurowear” claim to have developed a pair of wearable rabbit ears containing a BCI that moves based on your mood.

But, can you tell which one is an elaborate hoax?

(Watch the videos, check out their websites but don’t scroll down until you’ve made your guess.)

Flying Saucer Hoax 2 New Brainwave Products, Can You Spot The Fraud?

An elaborate hoax

Believe it or not, it turns out that the project that is a hoax is actually the mobile phone device “project black mirror“. This is clear for a number of reasons:

1. EEG can not yet be deciphered anywhere near the extent necessary to achieve a wide range of commands based simply on imagined words. At the moment it is only possible to assign commands based on cues such as our emotions or imagined movements of different parts of the body. Even then, there is a very long way to go before we can achieve significantly more commands than can be counted on one hand.

2. On the “project black mirror” page the group make the blunder of describing the device as an ECG instead of an EEG. An ECG is an electrocardiogram which measures activity from the heart while an EEG is an Electroencephalograph which measures activity from the brain, by definition, a necessary component in any BCI (the brain, that is).

3. On the “project black mirror” page the group describe the device as measuring signals in the range of 0-5v. EEG signals are approximately one millionth of that range! (“microvolts” not “volts”.)

4. The chip board in the “project black mirror” video isn’t properly attached.

5. In the “project black mirror” video, on the laptop screen there is an animation of the matrix code, presumably instead of an EEG output.

As @Interaxon has pointed out, this is a rather sad trick to play because it devalues the work being done by genuine BCI researchers and raises expectations to an unrealistic level. That said, progress is being made. Only this week a breakthrough study was published in the Lancet that demonstrated using EEG that 19% of patients diagnosed with being in a vegative state could respond using BCI.

“Three (19%) of 16 patients could repeatedly and reliably generate appropriate EEG responses to two distinct commands, despite being behaviourally entirely unresponsive (classifi cation accuracy 61–78%)”

(Cruse et, al, 2011) [Open access PDF via The Lancet]

This is a major step forward, demonstrating clinically that there really is potential for us to communicate using the many different BCI packages in development around the world with those that currently have no way of communicating whatsoever. This really is a noble goal and one that we are, right now, witnessing being achieved for the first time. Conversely, the “Project Black Mirror” video appears to be attempting to capitalise on this by applying to crowd-fund their “project” using Kickstarter. This is at best a poor thought out hoax and at worst a blundering attempt to commit a major fraud.

Now, there is one  question left to answer and that is…

“What about the BCI rabbit ears?”
Well, it seems that this project may well indeed be genuine. The concept itself is certainly scientifically grounded and empirically demonstrated (Coan, et al. 2004) [Open access PDF]. As for the product, well if there is someone bonkers enough to create it then there would be no reason why it would not be technically possible. And that, it would appear, there is.

NB: This is not an endorsement of the “neurowear” product. I have seen no published data and the apparent use of one electrode suggests the device would be vulnerable to confounding facial movements (See my critical post on the Emotiv’). That said, they certainly aren’t the first group to come up with an attempted wacky implementation of BCI and they certainly won’t be the last.

References:
Damian Cruse, Srivas Chennu, Camille Chatelle, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Davinia Fernández-Espejo, John D Pickard, Steven Laureys, Adrian M Owen (2011). Bedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state: a cohort study The Lancet : 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61224-5

Coan, J., & Allen, J. (2004). Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion Biological Psychology, 67 (1-2), 7-50 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.03.002

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No, but it might be able to give you a pretty good simulation. I’m still sceptical about the extend to which the Emotiv really is a brain computer interface (BCI). That notwithstanding, this is a pretty sweet idea..

The augmented reality version does look a hell of a lot more fun though..

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So, theres been a lot of chatter over recent weeks about Brain Computer Interfacing since Tan Le’s TED talk on the Emotiv which resulted in the emotiv site being overloaded with hits and the letters “B, C and I” becoming familiar to fellow geeks the world over. The talk is mostly a marketing pitch so as I’m currently (amateur that I may be) involved in some BCI research myself I figured I’d give a little explanation of whats going on here… 

 

Brain Computer Interfacing is not a new discovery but is currently emerging as a practical option for clinical treatment of “locked in syndrome”. The claims made by Emotiv however that the company has made a discovery that allows BCI to be released on the consumer market for gaming purposes are therefore intriguing. A major problem for decoding the EEG signals that the  BCI relies upon is that the electrical signal the brain gives off is very weak and must travel through both skull and tissue. Emotiv claims it’s “breakthrough was to create an algorithm that unfolds the cortex so that we can map the signals closer to it’s source and therefore making it capable of working across a mass population“. 

mans brain The Emotiv Empoc... Bursting the BCI Bubble?

The surface of the brain is folded, and the signals it gives off are complex and extremely distorted (teehee)

This currently hasn’t really been achieved by the army of BCI researchers working in institutions around the world so if true it is a genuine breakthrough that could have positive implications for sufferers of many degenerate brain disease patients and paralysis patients as well of course as the shock and awe of gamers everywhere. This finding however hasn’t been published in any journals to date, this should ring a number of alarm bells. 

The second eye brow raiser is that even relatively old EEG equipment costs tens of thousands of dollars and requires close contact between fine metal electrodes which must be carefully placed exactly on top of very precise areas of the scalp and the signal to be conducted with conductive gel in an intricate and time consuming process. Emotiv claim that their system is able to perform what appear to be better results than the state of the art in BCI with only dry electrodes and without any real care in the electrode placement. 

Another problem with the portrayal of the emotive device is that it seems to operate very differently from traditional cursor control BCI systems. Cursor control generally requires motor imagery. This means imagining a movement in a part of your body which “lights up” a part of your brain and programming a computer to recognise when you are imagining this movement. This requires pinpointing signals from a part of the brain called the motor cortex… 

motorcortex1 The Emotiv Empoc... Bursting the BCI Bubble?Besides being relatively small, this problem is made worse by the fact that the nerves that send and receive motor information around the body are not evenly distributed. This if you have not seen it before is called a homunculus and is the widely regarded and long held model of how psychologists believe the motor system is distrbuted proportionally around the body (this is why contemporary BCIs revolve around imagined hand movement)… 

3d homunculus The Emotiv Empoc... Bursting the BCI Bubble? 

if this were to be mapped over the surface of the brain it would to the best of our knowledge resemble something like this…homunculus The Emotiv Empoc... Bursting the BCI Bubble? 

And just for fun recent research has even suggested that a sensory homunculus may even look a bit more like this… 

penile homunculus The Emotiv Empoc... Bursting the BCI Bubble? 

My sincere apologies for inflicting that last image on you. No comment on the implications of that with regard to BCI though, just no, final answer. 

My point is that BCI systems as they are known today require us to imagine things that can  be very hard to identify alone let alone program a computer to decode so the process as it stands is considerably more complicated than imagining a computer doing something and “poof” it happening. Unfortunately the signals given off when we think are far more complex than any TV or radio signal and can’t be decoded in the same way. I’m not saying it will forever be impossible just that development will take time, progress will be made in baby steps and we may well be far further behind the point in the developmental process than this video suggests we are. It would be a great shame for the importance of future research to be diminished by a popular perception that “someone else did all that years ago”. I really don’t want to throw sand on anyones bonfire I just believe you have the right to be well informed. 

These three factors that I mentioned, in combination with a lack of any published work make myself and all of the experts I have spoken to, very reluctant to believe that this device will prove as effective as it is billed. The main concern of the critics to date is that the emotiv may actually use facial muscle movements rather than brain waves to provide the minimal control it allows. This would make the headset a rather obscure and ineffective way of picking up these signals (which would be EMG signals). One professor of Engineering working within the BCI field who I won’t name has described such devices as “Head Computer Interfaces rather than Brain Computer Interfaces”. We won’t know either way until someone does a controlled study and makes the results public. If the critics are wrong however this will come to be seen as a commercial breakthrough of epic proportions. 

eureka The Emotiv Empoc... Bursting the BCI Bubble?Regardless of whether the discoveries made by Emotiv are as grand as they sound or not the team at Emotiv certainly deserve credit for their work so far, their product is a step towards the hopes and dreams of all that have stepped foot in the field and we are all looking forward to seeing some published results by the company and hearing how this research develops. 

Until then however, I won’t be splashing out the the $500 (just slashed from $2500) for the research edition of the product and nor will I be buying the somewhat cheaper consumer model just yet. I will however be keeping a close eye on the progress of this product as it does seem to be the most advanced product in a field just gagging for it’s bubble to burst. 

For the record, I am only just beginning to dip my toe in to the deep dark lake that is this field so BIG respect to Emotiv for what they have achieved and all the other people working on mind bending projects like this. If I have learned one thing from seeing inside this field of research it is that it is going to be a very hard nut to crack. 

If you are interested in this product this is their site and there is an interesting though now somewhat dead public google wave for users and developers of the emotiv product here.

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